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An Easy Guide to the Thai Alphabet

Thai is a tonal language with its own unique alphabet, making it an exciting and challenging language to learn. While it may seem daunting at first, the Thai alphabet is actually quite easy to pick up once you understand a few basic principles. With some practice and dedication, you can be reading and writing in Thai in no time!

In this guide, we’ll discuss the basics of the Thai alphabet: how letters are pronounced, which tones they use, and what rules govern their combination into words.

We’ll also provide some helpful tips on learning and retaining new vocabulary as well as resources for further study.

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Interesting Facts about the Thai Alphabet

  • The Thai alphabet is derived from the Old Khmer script, which was used to write the Khmer language. The script was adapted by King Ramkhamhaeng in the 13th century to create the Thai alphabet.
  • Thai is a tonal language, meaning that the pitch of a word can change its meaning. Tone markers, in fact, are an innovation of the Thai language. There are five tones in Thai: mid-tone, low tone, falling tone, high tone, and rising tone. Tone markers are used to indicate the tone of a word, which is important for conveying the correct meaning.
  • In the Thai script, consonant clusters are written horizontally and contiguously, rather than placing the second consonant below the first one.
  • For many consonant sounds, there are two different letters that represent the same sound, but which cause a different tone to be associated. For example, the letter ก (k) and ข (kh) both represent the sound /k/, but ก is associated with the mid tone, while ข is associated with the low tone.

Thai Consonants

The Thai alphabet has twenty consonant sounds. However, there are 43 symbols for these 20 sounds.

This is because Thai consonants are represented by different letters or letter combinations depending on their context and the tone in which they are spoken.

How do Thai speakers know what tone to use when speaking Thai?

Thai speakers learn to use the correct tone of a word through a combination of factors such as exposure, context, and memorization. Thai children grow up hearing and imitating the tones used by their parents, relatives, and peers. As they learn the language, they develop a sense of what sounds right and what does not.

Moreover, the tone of a word can also be inferred from the context in which it is used. Thai speakers rely on the sentence structure, the words that precede or follow the target word, and the topic of conversation to determine the tone.

Finally, Thai language learners need to memorize the tone of each word they encounter, which can be challenging due to the large number of homophonic words in Thai that differ only in tone. Thai language courses often include tone drills, which help learners develop their ability to differentiate between the five tones and use them correctly.

Different pronunciations for the same consonants

In addition, some of these consonants can be pronounced differently depending on whether they occur at the beginning, middle, or end of a word, or whether they are paired with certain vowel sounds.

For example, the consonant ก (kaw gai) can be pronounced as /k/ or /g/ depending on the context. When it appears at the beginning of a word or syllable, it is usually pronounced as /k/, but when it appears in the middle or end of a word, it is pronounced as /g/. Similarly, the consonant พ (phaw phaan) can be pronounced as /p/ or /f/ depending on the tone in which it is spoken.

Now that you know the intricacies involved in the pronunciation of Thai consonants, here is a complete chart with all of them

Thai Alphabet Chart: Consonants


Thai consonant Approximate
Example word
[b] บ้าน (ban) – house
[bp] ปลา (pla) – fish
ฎ / ด [d] ด่าน (dan) – checkpoint
ฏ / ต [dt] ต้ม (dtom) – boil
ฝ / ฟ [f] ฟัน (fan) – tooth
[g] กา (ga) – kettle
ห / ฮ [h] หมา (ma) – dog
ญ / ย [j] ยัง (yang) – yet
ข / ฃ / ค / ฅ / ฆ [kh] ขวด (khuat) – bottle
ล / ฬ [l] ลิง (ling) – monkey
[m] ม้า (ma) – horse
ฌ / น [n] นม (nom) – milk
[ɳ] งู (ngu) – snake
ผ / พ / ภ [ph] พระ (phra) – monk
[r] ร้าน (ran) – store
ซ / ศ / ษ / ส [s] สวน (suan) – garden
ฐ / ฑ/ ฒ / ถ / ท / ธ [th] ถุง (thung) – bag
ฉ / ช / ณ [tsh] ชาว (chao) – people
[w] วัด (wat) – measure
[awe] อาหาร (ahan) – food

Thai Vowels

The Thai language has 15 main vowels, which can be either short or long in pronunciation.

One thing to bear in mind about Thai vowels is that, when it comes to writing, they can appear above, below, or beside consonant letters.

For example, to form a word using the vowel ะ (a), the consonant ก (k), should be placed in front of it: กะ (ka`).

In the table below, we have indicated the position of every vowel in a separate column:

Thai Alphabet Chart: Vowels


Character Position Near English equivalent
(if any)
Example Word
xั: above* [a] (short vowel) คัด (to filter)
xะ: behind [a] (short vowel) ระฆัง (bell)
xา: behind [aa] (long vowel) ผ้า (cloth)
xำ: behind [a(m)] (long vowel) แหล่ม (deep)
ไx before [ai] (long vowel) ไข่ (egg)
ใx before [ai] (long vowel) ใส่ (to put in)
เx: prima [e] (short vowel) เล่น (to play)
xึ: sopra – (short vowel) ึด (to hold tightly)
xื: above – (short vowel) ื้อ (to prop up)
แx: before [ɛ] (short vowel) แดง (red)
xิ : above [i] (short vowel) กิ่ง (branch)
xี: above [ii] (long vowel) ตี (to hit)
โx: before [o] (short vowel) โรงเรียน (school)
xุ: below [u] (short vowel) ผู้ชาย (man)
xู: below [uu] (long vowel) หู (ear)

The Thai Alphabet: Frequently Asked Questions

1. Is the Thai alphabet easy to learn?

The difficulty of learning the Thai alphabet can vary depending on the individual’s familiarity with tonal languages and the complexity of the writing system. Thai is a tonal language with 44 consonants, 15 vowel symbols, and four tone marks. Compared to English, Thai has a significantly different script and pronunciation system. However, with consistent practice and the right resources, many people have successfully learned to read and write in Thai.

2. Is Thai read left to right?

Yes, Thai is read left to right. The script is written horizontally from left to right, with no spaces between words. Like English, Thai uses punctuation marks and other symbols to indicate the end of a sentence or emphasize a particular word or phrase.

3. What’s the closest language to Thai?

Thai is a member of the Tai-Kadai language family, which includes languages spoken in southern China, Laos, and Vietnam. Within this family, Thai is most closely related to the Lao language. Additionally, Thai has been influenced by languages such as Pali, Sanskrit, and Khmer over the centuries.

4. What’s the best way to learn the Thai alphabet?

The best way to learn the Thai alphabet depends on the individual’s learning style and goals. Some useful resources for learning Thai script include textbooks, language learning apps, online courses, and language exchange programs. It can also be helpful to practice reading and writing with native speakers or language tutors who can provide feedback on pronunciation and grammar. Consistent practice and exposure to the language are key to successfully learning the Thai alphabet.

However, as with any other language, the best way to practice Thai is to do a customized course with a native Thai teacher. This will allow you to get personalized instruction and feedback, as well as get lots of opportunities for speaking practice. As a result, you can progress more quickly and get more out of your learning experience.

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At Listen & Learn, we work with native instructors in Thailand and around the world to offer personalized Thai classes online. Our experienced instructors can help you make a plan for learning the language based on your personal, academic o professional goals.

So, what are you waiting for? Sign up for a free trial Thai lesson now and start learning the Thai alphabet today!